E.O. Maruniak - Institute of Geography of the Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv.
The objective nature of globalization processes leads to formation of the new mechanisms, approaches and management practices and planning for different types of areas. Rural areas that are often identified with the periphery of socio-economic development are particularly vulnerable to global challenges. The purpose of the publication is to analyze the impact of globalization and regionalization on rural development, consequences and challenges faced at the regional and local level in different countries, mechanisms how to evaluate and overcome them. This experience taken in consideration in strategic and spatial Ukraine planning will help to form optimal scenario of international integration of rural areas. basic concepts, problems specific to modern rural area, main features of which are low (compared to the city) population density, the way of farming, special type of construction, a special type of cultural landscape, with a high percentage of natural or unchanged natural areas have been reviewed in the article. Directions or types of changes directly related to the impact of globalization processes have been highlighted. We are talking about such directions as inclusion of rural areas in the global reproductive cycle, their «marginalization» and «relocalization». The advantages that one or the other territory can get with globally and locally oriented positioning have been reviewed. The latter is an attractive alternative to rural development in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. The activity of transnational corporations on world agricultural markets, their role and importance to the economy of developed and developing countries has been analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the EU agricultural policy and directions of the European spatial development directly related to the countryside, approaches to rural area types in the context of globalization. The provisions which should be considered when developing management and planning strategies in rural areas have been formulated.
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