Osadcha, N. M., Luzovitska, Yu. A., Ukhan, O. O., Biletska, S. V., Osypov, V. V., Bonchkovsky, A. S., Nabyvanets, Yu. B., & Osadchyi, V. I. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE SURFACE WATER POLLUTION BY NUTRIENTS

Ukr. geogr. z. 2022, No. 4:37-48
Language of publication: 
Osadcha, N. M. 
Luzovitska, Yu. A. 
Ukhan, O. O. 
Biletska, S. V. 
Osypov, V. V.  
Bonchkovsky, A. S.  
Nabyvanets, Yu. B.  
Osadchyi, V. I.  

Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv



The preparation of the River Basin Management Plan includes an assessment of the human pressure by polluting substances. This paper suggests a methodology for calculating the total budget of nutrients in the river basin using the balance method. We assessed the supply of nutrients from various sources within the catchment area. Point sources include emissions from urban areas as well as industrial and agricultural enterprises. Diffuse sources are divided into those determined by natural background (emission from territories covered by forests, grass vegetation, direct atmospheric depositions on the water surface) and anthropogenic ones (arable land, rural, built-up areas). The developed method can be applied to basins not provided with monitoring data.

Key words: 
nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, diffuse and point sources, load, surface water
1. Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K. et al. (2009). A safe operating space for humanity. Nature. Vol. 461, 472-475. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/461472a
2. Fowler D. et al. (2013). The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0164
3. Whelan, M. J., Linstead, Worrall C. F., et al. (2022). Is water quality in British rivers "better than at any time since the end of the Industrial Revolution." Science of the Total Environment. Elsevier, Т. 843, 57014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157014
4. EEA European waters. Assessment of status and pressure. 2018, 7/2018.
5. Osadchy, V. I. (2000). The main trends of the chemical composition formation of surface water in Ukraine during 1995-1999. Scientific proceedings of UHMI. 2000. 248, 138-153. [In Ukrainian] [Осадчий В.І. Основні тенденції формування хімічного складу поверхневих вод України у 1995-1999 рр. Наук. праці УкрНДГМІ. 2000. 248, 138-153.]
6. Osadchy, V., Osadcha N., Nabyvanets, Ju. (2003). Chemical composition and water quality of surface waters in Ukraine. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Impact of Environmental factors on Health "Environmental Health Risk II." Catania, Italy: Southampton-Boston. WIT Press, 15-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2495/EHR030021
7. Khan, F. A., & Ansari, A. A. (2005). Eutrophication: An Ecological Vision. The Botanic Review, 4: Bd. 7, 449-482.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1663/0006-8101(2005)071[0449:EAEV]2.0.CO;2
8. Sirenko, L. A., & Havrylenko, M. Ya. (1978). "Blooming" of water and eutrophication. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1978. 232 p. [In Russian]. [Сиренко Л. А., Гавриленко М. Я. «Цветение» воды и эвтрофирование. К: Наукова думка, 1978. 232 c.].
9. Beusen, A. H. W., Bouwman, A. F., Van Beek, L. P. H., Mogollón, J. M., & Middelburg, J. J. (2016). Global riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the 20th century despite increased retention along the aquatic continuum. Biogeosciences. 2016, Bd. 13, 2441-2451.
10. EEC Directive 91/271/ of the European Parliament and the Council concerning urban waste-water treatment. 1991a.
11. EEC Directive 91/676/EEC of the European Parliament and the Council concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources. 1991 b.
12. EC Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy. 2000.
13. EC Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and the Council establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy. 2008.
14. EC Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on implementation of Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources based on Member State reports. 2010.
15. Bouraoui, F., Grizzetti, B. (2011). Long term change of nutrient concentrations of rivers discharging in European seas. Sciences of the total Environment. Bd. 409, 4899-4916. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.08.015
16. Piwowar, A., Dzikuć, M. (2021). Water management in Poland in terms of reducing the emissions from agricultural sources-current status and challenges. Cleaner Engineering and Technology, Bd. 2, 100082. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clet.2021.100082
17. Malagó, A., Bouraoui, F. (2021). Global anthropogenic and natural nutrient fluxes: from local to planetary assessments. Environ. Res. Lett, 16, 054074. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abe95f
18. EEA Water availability, surface water quality and water use in the Eastern Partnership countries. 2020, 78 p.
19. State Statistics Service Plantation of Ukraine, statistical collection, 2018. State Statistics Service, 2020. [In Ukrainian]; [Державна служба статистики Рослинництво України, статистичний збірник, 2018. Державна служба статистики, 2020.].
20. Osadchy, V. I., Nabyvanets, B. Y., Lynnyk, P. M., Osadcha, N. M., & Nabyvanets, Yu. B. (2014). Processes of forming the chemical composition of surface waters. Kyiv: Nika Center, 2014. 240 p. [InUkrainian]. [Осадчий В. І., Набиванець Б. Й., Линник П. М., Осадча Н. М., Набиванець Ю. Б. Процеси формування хімічного складу поверхневих вод. К. : Ніка-Центр, 2014. 240 c.].
21. Arnold, J. G., Moriasi, D. N., Gassman, P. W., Abbaspour, K. C., & White, M. J. (2012). SWAT: Model use, calibration and validation. Trans. ASABE. 4. Bd. 55, 1491-1508. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.42256
22. Guidelines for the compilation of waterborne pollution to the Baltic Sea (PLC-water) (2007). Helsink. 80 p.
23. Behrendt, H., & Dannowski, R. (2007). Nutrients and heavy metals in the Odra River system. Weissensee Verlag. Germany. 337 p.
24. Hrysanov, N. I., & Osipov, G. K. (1993). Management of eutrophication of reservoirs. St. Petersburg: Gidrometizdat, 1993. 278 p. [In Russian]. [Хрисанов Н. И., Осипов Г. К. Управление эвтрофированием водоемов. СПб: Гидрометиздат, 1993. 278 c.]
25. Kondratiev, S. A., Kazmina, M. V., Shmakova, M. V., & Markova, E. G. (2011). The method of calculating biogenic load on water objects. Regional ecology. 2011. No. 3-4, 50-59. [In Russian]. [Кондратьев С. А. Казмина М. В., Шмакова М. В., Маркова Е. Г. Метод расчета биогенной нагрузки на водные объекты. Региональная экология. 2011. № 3-4, C. 50-59.].
26. Kondratiev, S. A., Shmakova, M. V., & Ulychev, V. I. Deterministic-stochastic modeling of runoff and biogenic load on water bodies (on the example of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea). St. Petersburg: Nestor-History, 2013. 36 p. [In Russian]. [Кондратьев С. А., Шмакова М. В., Уличев В. И. Детерминировано-стохастическое моделирование стока и биогенной нагрузки на водные объекты (на примере Финского залива Балтийского моря). СПб: Нестор-История, 2013. 36 c.].
27. Bojanowski, D., Orlińska-Woźniak, P., Wilk, P., Szalińska, E. (2022). Estimation of nutrient loads with the use of mass balance and modeling approaches on the Wełna River catchment example (central Poland). Sci. Rep. Bd. 12, 13052.
28. Kuuppo, P. (2006). River biogeochemistry and source identification of nitrate by means of isotopic tracers in the baltic Sea catchments. Biogeoscience.Vol. 3, 663-676. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-3-663-2006
29. Seitzinger, S. P., Kroeze, C., Bouwman, A. F., Caraco, N., Dentener, F., & Styles, R. V. (2002). Global Patterns of Dissolved Inorganic and Particulate Nitrogen Inputs to Coastal Systems: Recent Conditions and Future Projections. Estuaries. Bd. 25(4b), 640-655. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02804897
30. Van Breemen, N., Boyer, E. W., Goodale, C. L., Jaworski, N.A., Seitzinger, S., Paustian, K., Hetling, L., Lajtha, K., Eve, M., Mayer, B., van Dam, D., Howarth, R. W., Nadelhoffer, K. J., & Billen, G. (2002). Where Did all the Nitrogen Go? Fate of Nitrogen Inputs to Large Watersheds in the Northeastern U.S.A. Biochemistry. Bd. 57/58, 267-293. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3405-9_8
31. Stålnacke, P., Pengerud, A., Bechmann, M., Garnier, J., Humborg, C., Novotny, V. (2009). Nitrogen driving force and pressure relationships at contrasting scales: Implications for catchment management. International Journal of River Basin Management. 3: Bd. 7, 221-232. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15715124.2009.9635385
32. Pilegaard, K. U., Skiba, P., Ambus, C., Beier, N., et al. (2006). Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O). Biogeosciences. 651-661. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-3-651-2006
33. Behrendt, H. Huber, P., Kornmilch, M., Opitz, D., Schmoll, O., Scholz G., and Uebe R. (2000). Nutrient emissions into river basins of Germany. UBA, 266 p.
34. Hartzman, B. I., Bugaets, A. N., Tegai, N. D., Krasnopeev, S. M. (2008). Analysis of the river systems structure and prospects for modeling hydrological processes. Geography and natural resources. 2008. 2, 20-29. [In Russian]. [Гарцман Б. И., Бугаец А. Н., Тегай Н. Д., Краснопеев С. М. Анализ структуры речных систем и перспективы моделирования гидрологических процессов. География и природные ресурсы. 2008. 2, 20-29]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gnr.2008.06.017
35. Willgoose, G. R., Bras, R. L., & Rodriges-Iturbe, I. (1992). The relationship between catchment and hillslope properties: Implication of a catchment evolution model. Geomorphology. Vol. 5, 21-38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-555X(92)90056-T
36. Howard, A. D. (1990). Theoretical model of optimal drainage network. Water Resources Research, 26(9), 2107-2117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/WR026i009p02107
37. Venohr, M., Hirt, U., Hofmann, J., Opitz, D., Gericke, A., Wetzig, A., Natho, S., Neumann, F., Hürdler, J., Matranga, M., Mahnkopf, J., Gadegast, M. & Behrendt, H. (2011). Modelling of Nutrient Emissions in River Systems. MONERIS. Methods and Background. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 5: Vol. 96, 435-483. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/iroh.201111331
38. Behrendt, D., Opitz, D. (2000). Retention of nutrients in river systems: dependence on specific runoff and hydraulic load. Hydrobiologia,Vol. 410, 111-122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003735225869
39. Pöthig, R., Behrendt, H., Opitz, D., Furrer, G. (2010). A universal method to assess the potential of phosphorus loss from soil to aquatic ecosystems. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2: Vol. 17, 497-504. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-009-0230-5
40. Vitousek, P. M., Aber, John D., Howarth, Robert W., Likens, Gene E., Matson, Pamela A., Schindler, David W., Schlesinger, William H., Tilman, David G. (1997). Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2269431
41. Galloway, J. N., Dentener, F. J., Capone, D. G., Boyer, E. W., Howarth, R. W., Seitzinger, S. P. & Vöosmarty, C. J. (2004). Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future. Biogeochemistry, 70(2), 153-226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-004-0370-0
42. Galloway, J. N., Townsend, A. R., Erisman, J. W., Bekunda, M., Cai, Z., Freney, J. R., Martinelli, L. A., Seitzinger, S. P., & Sutton, M. A. (2008). Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science, 320, 889-892. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1136674
43. Guidance Guidance document on sustainable agriculture in the Danube river basin. ICPDR, 2020. 97 p.
44. Franke, N. A., Boyacioglu, H., Hoekstra, A. Y. (2013). Grey water footprint accounting: Tier 1 supporting guidelines: Value of Water Research Report Series. UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands, No. 65.
45. De Girolamo, A. M., Spanò, M. D., Ambrosio, E., Ricci, G. F., Gentile, F. (2019). Developing a nitrogen load apportionment tool: Theory and application. Agricultural Water Management. Vol. 226, 105806. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2019.105806
46. EEA Sustainable Use of Europe's Water? State Prospects and Issues. (2000). Copenhagen: European Environment Agency (EEA), 2000. Environmental assessment report No. 7.
47. OECD Environmental Indicators for Agriculture. Methods and Results: vol. 3. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2001.
48. Balyuk, S. A., Grekov, V. O., Lisovyi, M.V., Komarista, A. V. Calculation of the balance of humus and nutrients in the agriculture of Ukraine at different levels of management. Kharkiv: 2011. 30 p. [In Ukrainian]. [Балюк С. А., Греков В. О., Лісовий М. В., Комариста А. В. Розрахунок балансу гумусу і поживних речовин у землеробстві України на різних рівнях управління. Харків: 2011. 30 c.].
49. Osadcha, N. M., Nabyvanets, Y. B., Grebin, V. V. et al. (2020). Development of a management plan for the Dnipro basin within Ukraine: phase 1, step 2-analysis of anthropogenic load and its impact, risk assessment, environmental goals for surface water bodies : European Union Water Initiative Plus for Eastern Partnership Countries (EUWI-EAST-UA-14), 2020. Vol. Technical report, 132 p. [In Ukrainian]. [Осадча Н. М., Набиванець Ю. Б., Гребінь В. В. та ін. Розроблення плану управління басейну Дніпра в межах України: фаза 1, крок 2 - аналіз антропогенного навантаження та його впливу, оцінка ризику, екологічні цілі для масивів поверхневих вод: European Union Water Initiative Plus for Eastern Partnership Countries (EUWI-EAST-UA-14), 2020. Vol. Технічний звіт, 132 c.].
50. Osypov, V. V., Bonchkovsky, A. S., Oreshchenko, A. V., Oshurok, D. O., & Osadcha, N. M. Calculating the amount of precipitation at Ukrainian weather stations taking into account the influence of wind. Bulletin of Kharkiv National University by V. N. Karazin, series "Geology. Geography. Ecology." 2021. Issue 55, 204-215. [In Ukrainian]. [Осипов В. В., Бончковський, А. С., Орещенко, А. В., Ошурок, Д. О., Осадча, Н. М. Обчислення кількості опадів на українських метеостанціях із врахуванням впливу вітру. Вісник Харківського національного університету імені В. Н. Каразіна, cерія «Геологія. Географія. Екологія». 2021. Вип. 55. C. 204-215]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26565/2410-7360-2021-55-15
51. Shwebs, G. I., Antonova, S. O., Igoshina, V. I. et al. Protection of soils from erosive destruction in the basins of rivers and reservoirs of Ukraine. Bulletin of Odesa National University. 2003. Vol. 8, 116-128. [In Ukrainian]. [Швебс Г. І., Антонова С. О., Ігошина В. І. та ін. Охорона ґрунтів від ерозійного руйнування в басейнах річок і водойм України. Вісник Одеського Національного Університету. 2003. Vol. 8, 116-128].
52. Grizzetti, B., Passy, P., Billen, G., Bouraoui, F., Garnier, J., & Lassaletta, L. (2015). The role of water nitrogen retention in integrated nutrient management: assessment in a large basin using different modelling approaches. Environ. Res. Lett. Vol. 10, 065008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/6/065008
53. Durand, P., Breuer, L., Johnes, P. (2011). Nitrogen processes in aquatic ecosystems. URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254840257 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511976988.010
54. de Klein, J. (2008). From Ditch to Delta. Nutrient retention in running waters. Wageningen: Wageningen University, Vol. PhD Thesis, 194 p.
55. Peterson, B. J., et al. (2001). Control nitrogen export, from watersheds by headwater streams. Science. Vol. 292, 86-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1056874
56. OSPAR Quantification and reporting of the monitored riverine load of nitrogen and phosphorus, including flow normalisation procedures. 2004. Vols. HARP-NUT Guideline 7.